|Click on images below for more info.
||July to May
||Rows of small bumps, 1 to 2 mm in diameter (between the size of a pin head and match head). The bumps are brownish-black contrasting sharply with greenish to brownish bark.
These bumps are not the eggs themselves. Adult females excavate small cavities in the twigs, lay usually about eight eggs inside, then seal the egg-laying site with a cap made of chewed bark and excrement held together by a special cement that they make.
|Along the underside of young branches, usually the current season's growth.
In late summer and fall, you can often find them on stems near leaves where adults have been feeding. (See below.)
Egg-laying sites are often easier to spot in winter when there are no leaves on the viburnums.
1st instar larva, about 1 mm
2nd instar larva, about 4 mm
3rd instar larva, about 10 mm
|Late April to mid-June
|When they first emerge from eggs, larvae are about 1 mm long, greenish-yellow to off-white, and lack spots.
Second and third stage larvae are yellowish-brown with black spots along their backs, and grow up to 10 to 11 mm (about one-half inch).
|Anywhere on leaves, usually the underside when the larvae are young, and usually more than one larvae on a leaf.
They are hard to spot early on, so look for them on leaves near empty egg-laying sites.
As they get older, they feed more on the tops of the leaves, and like the adults they are more prone to dropping off if disturbed.
|Late April to summer
||"Skeletonized" leaves. Feeding is almost exclusively in the areas between the leaves' veins.
||Leaves, particularly those near egg-laying sites. Often difficult to spot early in the season as the leaves are emerging and the larvae are small.
||Late June/ early July
||Larvae crawl down plants to pupate in the soil. They're tough to spot at this stage.
||In the soil around plants.
||Late June to killing frost
||Brown and smaller than larvae, 4.5 to 6.5 mm (about one-quarter inch). Females are larger than males.
||On leaves but will drop off of plant or fly away when disturbed.
Adults can migrate, so look for them on plants that were not infested with larvae, as well as those that were.
|Late June to leaf drop in fall.
||Irregular circular to eliptical holes, sometimes crossing veins while often leaving the vein intact. Watch a feeding adult in action.
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Adults can migrate, so look for feeding damage on plants that were not infested with larvae, as well as those that were.